Water Quality Trading
State Programs

On This Page:

Click on the state name below, or scroll down, for information regarding state water quality trading programs and state policies.
 Arizona  California  Colorado  Connecticut
 Nevada  New Jersey
 New York
North Carolina
 Ohio  Oregon  Pennsylvania  Tennessee
  Utah   Vermont
Washington D.C.
West Virginia     Wisconsin Wyoming
*ATTN: The following maps may only be re-used with permission. Please inquire with Mark Kieser for use (see Contact Us)
 Trading Programs at the Watershed Scale
 Trading Programs at State Level

  State Trading Programs:                                                                                                   


  • Nitrogen Credit Advisory Board:

  • Legislation: 
  • Lower Delaware River Basin
    • 2006 Report "Water Quality Trading in the Lower Delaware River Basin: A Resource for Practitioners"
  • Indian River and Bay, Rehoboth Bay, Little Assawoman Bay Watersheds:
    • 7403 Regulations Governing the Pollution Control Strategy 
  • Basin Management Action Plans (BMAPs): Webpage (contains links to specific BMAPs)
  • 2010 Fact Sheet: EPA Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters
  • Lake Okeechobee Watershed:Factsheet - WWF page - RFF article
    • Florida Ranchlands Environmental Services Projects (FRESP) is funded by the USDA NRCS, FDACS, SFWMD, WWF, and Florida DEP. It is a 5 year pilot market-based project to restore Lake Okeechobee Watershed by paying Ranchers for environmental services such as water retention, phosphorus retention, and wetland enhancement. 

  • Lower St. Johns River Basin:

  • Lake Allatoona Watershed:
  • Water Quality Trading Feasibility Papers:
    • 2006 Building a Foundation for Water Quality Trading in Georgia" paper
    • 2005 "An Evaluation of Water Quality Trading for Georgia Watersheds" paper
    • 2005 "A Feasibility Analysis of Applying Water Quality Trading in Georgia Watersheds" Paper
    • 2005 "Water Quality Trading in Georgia: Addressing Two Potential Impediments to Success" Paper
    • 2003 "Developing Offset Banking Systems in Georgia" working paper
  • Iowa Market Feasibility Assessment Study (Three Project Sites):
    • 1. Raccoon River Watershed
    • 2. Walnut Creek Watershed
    • 3. Boone River Watershed "The Allocation of Nutrient Load Reduction Across a Watershed: Assessing Delivery Coefficients as an Implementation Tool" Link to Journal Abstract.

  • 2010 Article: "Water Quality Trading and Wetland Banking: Lessons for Iowa"


  • Cheney Lake Watershed
    •  PERC Case Study: "Cheney Lake Watershed: Farming Water Quality in Kansas"
  • Kentucky River Watershed:
    • 2014: Kentucky Division of Water - Kentucky Nutrient Management Strategy.
    • 2011 Paper: "Non-Point Source Abatement Costs in the Kentucky River Watershed"
    • 2009-2011 Study: "Assessment of Market-based Water Quality Trading System for the Kentucky River Watersheds"
    • Part 1: Issue 2: Water Quality and Quantity, from "Kentucky Statewide Assessment of Forest Resources"
    • Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Report: "Kentucky Division of Enforcement"
    • Nutrient Criteria Development Plan for the Commonwealth of Kentucky. (August 2007). Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection: Division of Water.
  • Establishing a Research Agenda for Assessing the Bioavailability of Wastewater Treatment Plant-Derived Effluent Organic Nitrogen in Treatment Systems and Receiving Waters. (2007). Margaret R. Mulholland, Nancy G. Love, Deborah A. Bronk, Vikram Pattarkine, Amit Pramanik, H. David Stensel. Workshop co-sponsored by the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) to the Chesapeake Bay Program and the Water Environment Research Foundation's (WERF's) Nutrient Challenge Program.
  • Nitrogen Credit Trading in Maryland: 2002 "Market Analysis for Establishing a Statewide Framework"
  • Draft Water Quality Trading Rules:
    • Water Quality Trading Rule Development
    • MPCA Phosphorus Strategy

  • Policy Study 265 "Environmental Flexibility in Action: A Minnesota Case Study"
  • 2011 Watson Partners and the Southern Minnesota Sugar Beet Cooperative:
    • Phosphorus Trading "Farm of the Future" Project
  • Minnesota River Basin: General Phosphorus Permit Phase 1
  • MN Water Quality Trading Rules:
    • 2009 Kieser & Associates Report "A Scientifically Defensible Process for the Exchange of Pollutant Credits under Minnesota's Proposed Water Quality Trading Rules"
  • USDA Conservation Innovation Grant:

  • Lower Minnesota River:

  • Minnesota River:
  • Vermillion River:
    • Targeted Watershed Grand "Thermal Credit Trading System" webpage (includes links to Project findings and methods)
    • 2008 Maps of Thermal Credit Potential
    • 2007 Paper "Thermal trading in a Local, State, and Federal Regulatory Context: the Vermillion River" 
  • Fact Sheet: "Nevada Division of Environmental Protection" (pursuant to NAC 445A.236)
  New Jersey
  • Non Tidal Passaic River Basin:
    • Factsheet
    • White Paper (2013): Evaluation of the Water Quality Trading Program as Presented in the Final Rutgers University Report Entitled “Development and Water Quality Model Validation of a Phosphorus Trading Program for the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin”
    • Water Quality Trading Program Webpage and Presentation (through Rutgers University)
    • Presentation (2007): "Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin Water Quality Trading Project" (NJWEA 92nd Annual Conference - Atlantic City, NJ)

  • Passaic Valley: Sewerage Commissioners Pretreatment Trading Program
  New York

  North Carolina
  • Legislation:
    • Water Quality Trading Rules
    • Ohio EPA Water Quality Trading Website
    • Ohio Administrative Code: Chapter 3745-5: Water Quality Trading (2012 Revision)
  • Great Miami River Watershed:
    • Water Quality Credit Trading Program page
    • 2005 Water Quality Trading Program Operations Manual
    • Miami Conservancy District: Improving Water Quality Demonstration Projects page
    • Preliminary Economic Analysis Study
    • 2012 Article: "An Ex Post Evaluation of Ohio's Great Miami Water Quality Trading Program"
    • 2012 Book Chapter Abstract & Link: "Chapter 75: Moving Upstream: Collaborative Leadership in Water Quality Improvement" from "Environmental Leadership: A Reference Handbook"
    • Report: "An Economic Comparison of USDA-NRCS EQIP Payments and Water Quality Trading in the Great Miami River Watershed in Ohio"
  • Sugar Creek Watershed:
    • 2011 Article: Alpine Cheese Water Quality Trading Project Proves Successful 
    • Alpine Cheese Phosphorus Nutrient Trading Program 2006 Trading Plan
  • Shepherd Creek:
    • Research: "Using Economic Incentive to Manage Storm water Runoff" Part 1 and Evaluation
  • Ohio River Basin:
    • EPRI Ohio River Basin Webpage
    • Power Facilities Map
  • Paper: Dynamic Simulation of Thermal Water Quality Trading Program and Implications for Policy Design
  • DEP Chesapeake Bay Webpage: includes links to "Trading of Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Credit: Policy and Guidelines", information from the trading workgroup and all documents related to the Chesapeake Bay.
  • 2013 Chesapeake Bay Nutrient Reduction Targets Compliance Cost Study
  • 2010 Final Report: "The Wissahickon Creek Municipal Sediment Credit System"
  • 2010 Article: "Establishing a Clearinghouse to Reduce Impediments to Water Quality Trading"
  • 2009 CCX Final Report: Outline for PENNVEST's Role as Nutrient Credit Clearinghouse in Pennsylvania's Water Quality Nutrient Credit Market. To request this publication, contact Michael Walsh (Exec. VP) or Jeffery O'Hara (Economist).
  • 2008 Journal: "Pennsylvania Geology" (vol. 38, no. 1)
  • 2007 Article: Ready to Trade: PA Approves Policy to Exchange Nutrients
  • 2007 White Paper: "Pennsylvania's Nutrient Trading Program: Legal Issues & Challenges"
  • Final Trading of Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Credits - Policy and Guidelines (2006)
    • Appendix: Nutrient Trading Criteria Specific for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed
    • Attachment 1: Point Source Allocation Strategy
    • Attachment 2: Overview of Wastewater Planning Program Procedures
    • Attachment 3: Overview of the Agriculture Sector’s participation in Nutrient Trading
  • 2006 Primer on Water Quality Trading in the Mid Atlantic Region
  • DEP News Releases:
    • 2006 Article: State's Nutrient Trading Program Garnering Attention
    • 2006 Article:  First Credit Sale
  • Lawsuit: Borough of Bedford et al. v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

 Unrecognized Guid format.Texas

  • Legislation:
    • VPDES Watershed General Permit for nutrient Discharges to the Chesapeake Bay: Webpage
    • DEQ Chesapeake Bay Program: Webpage

  • Nutrient Credit Exchange Study
  • Nutrient Credit Exchange Association, Inc. Page
  • 2012 Deliberative Draft for Discussion: "Uncertainty Related to Nutrient Offsets and Trading in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed - Summary of Terminology and Definitions in Policies and Regulations"
  • 2009 Evaluation: "Nutrient Trading Options in Virginia: A Role for Agriculture"
  • 2007 Article: "Analyzing Cost Implications of Water Quality Trading Provisions: Lessons from the Virginia Nutrient Credit Exchange Act"
  • 2006 "Evaluation of the Virginia's Nutrient Credit Trading Program." Kurt Stephenson, Stephen Aultman, and Leonard Shabman. Paper Prepared for presentation at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting. July 23-26, 2006: Long Beach, CA.
  • 2005 Report: "Chesapeake Bay Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Tributary Strategy for the James River, Lynnhaven, and Poquoson Coastal Basin"
  • 2011 Water Quality Trading Program Update
  • 2010 Draft Water Quality Trading Framework Paper
  Washington D.C. (District of Columbia)

  • Washington D.C. Stormwater Credit Exchange Website
  • Notice of Final Rule Making: Stormwater Management, and Soil Erosion and Sediment Control. (2013). District Department of the Environment (DDOE).
  • Chesapeake Stormwater Network: The District Department of the Environment (DDOE) finalized a new regulatory framework for stormwater management by large development sites in the District of Columbia.  The new regulations were published in the DC Register on Friday, July 19, 2013.
  West Virginia
  • WV Water Quality Nutrient Credit Trading Program Guidance Document (2009)
  • Potomac River Watershed:
    • 2010 Final Report: "WV Potomac Nutrient Credit Bank and Trade Program: NRCS Conservation Innovation Grant"
    • Water Quality Bank and Trade Program Webpage (includes links to 2008 Draft Trading Guidance Documents)
    • 2008 "TMDL for Selected Streams in the Potomac Watershed" Final Report
    • Nutrient Trading in Potomac River Brochure

  • Cheat River:
    • EPA Document: Trading Framework and Water Quality Credits on Former Mine Lands
    • 2003 Document: "Completed and Future Projects and use of TMDL Trading"

  • Coal River Watershed: 2006 TMDL for Selected Streams in the Coal Watershed" Final Report
  • Water Quality Trading Framework for Wisconsin (2011) Report
  • 2003 Report: "Lessons from the Trading Pilots: Applications for Wisconsin Water Quality Trading Policy

 Interstate Trading Programs:                                                                                            

 Chesapeake Bay Program
  • State Pages & WIP's:
    • Delaware:
      • 2012 WIP: "Phase II Chesapeake Bay Watershed Implementation Plan [WIP]"
      • 2010 WIP: "Phase I Chesapeake Bay Watershed Implementation Plan [WIP]"
    • District of Columbia:
      • 2010 WIP: "Chesapeake Bay TMDL Watershed Implementation Plan [WIP]"
    • Maryland:
      • 2012 WIP: "Phase II Watershed Implementation Plan [WIP] for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed"
      • 2010 WIP: "Phase I Watershed Implementation Plan [WIP] for the Chesapeake Bay TMDL"
      • 2009 Report: "Costs and Cost Efficiencies for Some Nutrient Reduction Practices in Maryland"
    • New York:
      • 2010 WIP: "Final Phase I Nutrient and Sediment Water Quality Improvement and Protection Plan"
    • Pennsylvania:
      • A Nutrient Trading DEP Webpage
      • 2012 WIP: "Pennsylvania Chesapeake Watershed Implementation Plan [WIP]: Phase 2"
      • 2010 WIP: "Pennsylvania Chesapeake Watershed Implementation Plan [WIP]"
    • Virginia:
      • VA Watershed Permit Webpage
      • 2012 WIP: "Chesapeake Bay TMDL Phase II Watershed Implementation Plan [WIP]"
      • 2010 WIP: "Chesapeake Bay TMDL Phase I Watershed Implementation Plan [WIP]"
    • West Virginia:
      • WV Trading Program Webpage
      • 2012 WIP: "Chesapeake Bay TMDL Final Phase II Watershed Implementation Plan [WIP]"

  • Combined 2014 Action Plan & 2013 Progress Report: "Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed"
  • 2012 Report: "Nutrient Credit Trading for the Chesapeake Bay: An Economic Study"
  • 2012 Report: "Accounting for Transaction Costs in Point/Nonpoint Water Quality Trading Programs in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed"
  • 2010 Executive Order: "Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed"
  • 2010 Guidance: "Guidance for Federal Land Management in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed"
  • 2010 Chesapeake Bay TMDL Appendix: "Appendix S. Offsetting New or Increased Loadings of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sediment to the Chesapeake Bay Watershed"

  • 2010 Newsletter: "Bay Bank - The Chesapeake's Conservation Marketplace" (The Pinchot Letter, Vol.15, No.1)
  • 2010 Working Paper: "How Baywide Nutrient Trading Could Benefit Virginia Farms" (WRI)
  • 2010 Working Paper: "How Nutrient Trading Could Help Restore the Chesapeake Bay" (WRI)
  • 2009 Study: "Evaluation Framework for the Water Quality Trading Programs in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed"
  • 2009 Testimony: "Testimony of J. Charles Fox, Senior Advisor to Administrator Lisa P. Jackson, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, Energy, and Research Committee on Agriculture, U.S. House of Representatives"
  • 2009 Testimony: "Statement by Ann Mills, Deputy Under Secretary, Natural Resources and Environment, US Department of Agriculture, Before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, Energy, and Research, Committee on Agriculture, US House of Representatives"
  • 2009 Bill: "Chesapeake Clean Water and Ecosystem Restoration Act of 2009"
  • 2007 Analysis: "Bay Bank Baseline Analysis: Regulatory Drivers of Ecosystems Markets in the Chesapeake Bay" Conducted by Environmental Law Institute for the Pinchot Institute for Conservation

  • 2005 Article "Nutrient Credit Trading: The New Bay Cleanup Tool"
  • Workshop Proceedings:

  • Reports:
    • 2014 "Local Water Quality Protection when Using Credits for NPDES Permit Issuance and Compliance: EPA Tech. Memorandum" Report
    • 2013 "Components of Credit Calculation: EPA Technical Memorandum" DRAFT Report
    • 2009 "Evaluation Framework for Water Quality Trading Programs in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed" Report 
    • 2009 "Cost and Cost Efficiencies for some Nutrient Reduction Practices in Maryland" Report
    • 2001 "Nutrient Trading for the Chesapeake Bay" Report
 Ohio River Basin
  • 2013 Report: "Ecosystem Flow Recommendations for the Upper Ohio River Basin in Western Pennsylvania" (The Nature Conservancy)
  • 2011 Project Notice: Pilot Trades for Compliance with Nutrient Criteria and Greenhouse Gas Targets 
  • 2008 Article: "Missing Protection: Polluting the Mississippi River Basin's Small Streams and Wetlands"
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